They are the backbone of our rocky, wind and wave-swept western coastline, and provide an important habitat for many other species, just as forests do on land. See also: Ways to Protect the Marine Life – Volcano under the Ocean. Kelp canopies in this area have declined gradually from more than 10 hectares in 1989 and 1990 to less than 1 hectare annually since 1994 (Berry et al. 10 Types of Kelp - Characteristics - Benefits - 3/22/18, 213 PM Kelp normally grows in along rocky coastlines. Fishing, trophic cascades, and the structure of algal assemblages: evaluation of an old but untested paradigm. It’s a marine species of brown algae that is cultivated mostly in Japan and Korean, They are harvested on ropes in the sea. Winged kelp are really well known in Ireland. In each of them, they have a natural source of vitamins A, B1, B2, C, D and E, as well as minerals including zinc, iodine, magnesium, iron, potassium, copper and calcium. They normally can grow at 16 degrees or less. Kelp is rich in vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K. Its Vitamin C content is particularly high. Along the central California coast where the distribution of giant kelp and bull kelp overlap, giant kelp out competes bull kelp for light.Kelp survival is positively correlated with the strength of the substrate. Recent Examples on the Web Other marine life can swim through the barrier, which mimics a kelp forest, without a problem. Sea urchin grazing and kelp re-vegetation in the NE Atlantic. 10 Types of Kelp - Characteristics - Benefits, further information about how many types of kelp which exist in marine life, their habitat and status. In southern California, they can grow around 30 cm per day. Kelp are an extremely important UK species. Norderhaug, K.M., Christie, H., 2009. ", "British report: Use kelp to produce energy", "Green Glossary: Kelp Forests: Other Marine Life: Animal Planet",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2018, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. They grow small blades in each of few centimeters of their body. Oarweed mostly used as a fertilizer in the past and spread on the land. Kelp, or brown algae, is found on the coasts of Korea and Japan. Jørgensen, N.M., Christie, H., 2003. Jonathan Pereira, Fred B. Kilmer, The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Volume 1, 1854, p. 558, Edward C. C. Stanford, Wentworth L. Scott, ‘The Economic Applications of Seaweed’, February 14 1862, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol 10, No. and . Kelp health benefits includes preventing cancer, maintaining pH balance, enhancing bone density, a good source of protein, helps in RBC production, a good salt replacement, boosting immunity, managing menstruation symptoms, supporting weight loss, combating There are around 30 varieties of kelp. Sure, kelp makes a great seaweed salad and goes well with sushi — and hey, you’re getting your omega-3s on. They are rich in iodine, potassium and other minerals. Thongweed normally found in all shores with its wide tolerance for the extreme wave actions. See also: Oceans in the World – Differences Between the Ocean and the Sea. The logo of the Monterey Bay Aquarium represents the tip of a growing giant kelp. Kelp is a Production, respiration and exudation of dissolved organic matter by the kelp Laminaria hyperborea along the west coast of Norway. Kelp is also high in magnesium. This area will be anchored into the rocks and other materials in the sea floors. In a normal dose, the mineral that contains inside their body is a good mineral for growth. In the study showed that this iodine in kelp may effectively remove the free radicals – chemicals that accelerate aging in the human blood cells. Giant kelp commonly live along the coast of the eastern Pacific Ocean. They collected samples from the ocean, placed them in four identical tanks in the lab, and grew them under identical conditions for three weeks. Though kelp may look like a plant, it is actually a form of sea algae. Related More plants and algae Wakame has a high level in nutrient value, and they also have a very low calories with minimal in fat. The kelp plant is made up of three parts: the blade (the leaf-like structure), the stipe (the ste… The blades contain a special gas which act like a float keeping the kelp close to the surface of the water when they absorb the energy from the sun. Kelp play an important role for the oceans. ‘Solaray’ and ‘Nature’s Way’ are considered top brands of kelp capsules. They normally can be found in the shallow open coastal waters with less than 20°C in temperature. Herbivores are released from their usual population regulation, leading to over-grazing of kelp and other algae. Their body contains nitrogen and phosphate more than the Giant kelp. In Japan itself, 90% of Japanese are cultivating Kombu. Species distribution and habitat exploitation of fauna associated with kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) along the Norwegian coast. In this condition, it can bring renewed supplies of nutrients allowing these plants to grow until 175 feet. Kelp forests are composed of rapidly growing large brown algae. This alginic acid commonly being used in manufacture of cosmetics and toothpaste. It is a common alga that grows in the coastal area that severe from the wave. Giant kelp normally grows in turbulent water. Wakame is a great addition to any diet as there are few things we can eat that are so replete with nutrients and health benefits. C.V. Mosby, 022006. p. 270, J. M. Bumsted, The People's Clearance: Highland Emigration to British North America, 1770-1815, 1981. Bourque, D. Corbett, J.A. China even produces more than 10 thousand tonnes of Kombu every single year. As we know, Giant kelp grows dense stands or we know it as kelp forests and also the home as well as foods for many ocean creatures. In fact, some types of kelp can have up to 2,984 mcg of iodine per sheet (1 g), according to the NIH, which recommends 150 mcg of iodine per day for non-pregnant women ages 19+. Kelp is a seaweed that belongs to the brown algae family Laminaiaceae. This material can help cancer patients to remove drug resistance. Feather Boa Kelp normally living in rocky areas. Meanwhile, here we inform you about how many types of kelp live in Ocean, as follows: Laminaria is one of seaweed types that is native to Japan. Other sea vegetables like wakame, hiziki, dulse, Irish moss etc are also used as supplements. They contains about 5 calories per serving which means this can help you to burn fat. 1988. In general, kelp will live longer and further in the tropics than coral reefs, mangrove forest, and warm-water sea-grass beds. Wakame also beneficial for the effects on stroke, high blood pressure, tumors, and inflammation. They only consist blade, hold-fast, and a stipe. Kelp are sea creatures. What is Kelp? These brands are said to have lesser toxic metals and greater alginate content. Try to put some kelp mask and let us know the result. Wakame is one of edible brown seaweed and the most famous seaweed in Japan and Korea. Macrocystis pyrifera, commonly known as giant kelp or giant bladder kelp, is a species of kelp (large brown algae), and one of four species in the genus Macrocystis. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 2:161-174. Examples: Kelp, Rockweed, Sargassum. It’s the world’s largest species of marine algae. Read: Conservations of Dolphins – Smallest Dophins in The World. Kelp forests can be compared to a redwood forest. Its characteristics are long, leathery laminae and mostly have a large size. They will use the rope to grow the kelp. Figure 1. Weight Loss Aid-- Kelp helps boost metabolism, increasing the rate at which the body digests food. Thongweed mostly found in Baltic sea, the North sea and the North East Atlantic ocean start from Scandinavia to Portugal. If they anchored in the strong and large rock, Kelp will successfully survive. Next, dry them in sun. Read: Conservation of Coral reef– Ocean Relief. Other species in the Laminariales that may be considered as kelp: Non-Laminariales species that may be considered as kelp: Some animals are named after the kelp, either because they inhabit the same habitat as kelp or because they feed on kelp. They grow a branch stipe from a thick hold-fast. Nowadays, western start to get the popularity of this tree-shaped plants. Chemotherapy treatments is an undergoing dangerous process. They also have Iodine that needed to have a strong metabolism of cells,. Feather Boa Kelp also a source of Alginic Acid. In the 19th century Oarweed was used for the extraction of iodine. They live in the shallow oceans or you can say in the underwater forests. Kelp forests New Zealand’s largest seaweeds are collectively called kelps and belong to the brown group. The larger and stronger the rock on which it is anchored, the greater the chance of kelp survival. Sea urchin grazing and kelp re-vegetation in the NE Atlantic. The Macrocystis and Nereocystis even can grow half a meter per day, and they can reach around 30-80 meters. Kelp are not only needed for the human, but also the other creatures. Dokumentasjon av modellerte marine Naturtyper i DNs Naturbase. They live 8 to 30 m under the surface. Graham, B.J. Kelp will positively grow if they have a strong substrate. Those who prefer granules can try ‘Monterrey Bay Herb’ and ‘Frontier Herbs’. According to the research of the University of Newcastle, kelp have the alginates – fibers within them that significantly reduce fat digestion and absorption. Information on where kelp beds are found is at Scotland's National Marine Plan Interactive (NMPi). Certain types are the highest nutritional source of iodine available. Craig's Restorative Dental Materials, 12th Edition. Brown type of seaweed Grow in many marine environments Only grows in saltwater, along rocky coastlines in depts of 6 to 90 ft. deep Many different sizes, some of them are microscopic Large However, exercise caution when eating these herbs, as you would fish, for the levels of arsenic and mercury can v… Fucoidan, found in kelp, has been extensively researched for its cancer-fighting and Even it is native to Japan, they also can be found in the Atlantic Ocean and the Northern Pacific ocean. Kelp is one of the types of seaweed that belongs to the family of brown algae in Laminariales order. Firstly, they cut into ribbons. 2. They have dark brown or olive in color with shiny and bumpy texture. They have a very significant growth rate compare to the other algae, around 5,5 % per day. Kelp will successfully grow in the area which has ocean layers overturn, nutrient-rich waters, and also cool. Instead, marine algae are a group of species from the Protista 1985a. Colonisation of kelp imitations by epiphyte and holdfast fauna; a study of mobility patterns. Steneck. Rinde, E., 2009. Moreover, Wakame is a great ingredients for any diets. This kelp is a natural fertilizer. See Also: Ocean Seashells – Producers in Ocean Ecosystems. Kombu is a good natural source of glutamic acid. They can be dark green or almost black. Hydrobiologia 50, 69-76. [33], Giant kelp in Monterey Bay Aquarium's Kelp Forest exhibit, A close up view of Ecklonia maxima, giant brown kelp, Kelp found along the coast of La Jolla Shores, Saccharina latissima in salad form, same also in canned form. Thong weed commonly live around 2-3 years and reproduce once before they finally died. Giant kelp, sugarwack, southern kelp, and bull kelp are a few different varieties of kelp. Kelp are the home for thousands of species in the sea such as the invertebrates, fishes, and also other algae. Kelp will attach with the sea floor and eventually will grow towards the water’s surface and relies on the sunlight when they generate food and energy. Alaria mostly living in Pacific and Atlantic ocean. The team designed an experiment to test the responses of the three dominant types of local kelp, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata and Agarum clathratum, to warming water. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 83, 687-699. æ­¸; pinyin: hǎi gÅ«i, literally "sea return"). Read : Animals in The Ocean Biome – Types of Ocean Rays. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 13:19. Their distribution will be limited by their salinity, beach wave exposure, the temperature and their general stress. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 84: 887. Kelp forest has a greater variety and diversity of plants and animals than almost any other ocean community. Despite its appearance, it is not a plant; it is a heterokont. This highly productive habitat supports a wide variety of fish, invertebrates, and marine mammals forming the basis for a rich ecosystem. This particular condition normally will be found in southern California. Experts do suggest that some brands of kelp supplements are better than others. Some of the earliest evidence for human use of marine resources, coming from Middle Stone Age sites in South Africa, includes the harvesting of foods such as abalone, limpets, and mussels associated with kelp forest habitats. Then, healthy kelp forest maintains the ecosystem in the ocean such as stock of fishes, plants, and animals. In under ideal conditions, giant kelp may grow up to 2 feet per day. Estes, & R.S. They only grow around 15 cm and have around 15 m in length. They also contains calcium that allows you to absorb calcium easily to your body. Kelp can have many therapeutic and nutritional benefits, as it is a These include: Large brown seaweeds in the order Laminariales. They are sticky They may reach and grow about 4 m in length. Life among the fronds In Japan and China, they still become the most favorite ingredients for making dashi, a soup stock and many culinary purposes. Read:  Red Sea Fish Species– Facts of Dead Sea. Kelp forests are thought to provide some coasts with a degree of protection from storms, by absorbing some of the energy of the waves. Førstegenerasjonsmodeller til kommunenes startpakker for kartlegging av marine naturtyper 2007. Read: Facts of Blue Whales – Endangered Blue Whales. At the bottom, they have a root-like shape called a hold-fast. Christie, H., Jørgensen, N.M., Norderhaug, K.M., Waage-Nielsen, E., 2003. Marine Biology Research 5, 515-528. Species of Laminaria in the British Isles; Species of Laminaria worldwide, listing of species at AlgaeBase:[34]. Follow me @radd.michyy and lowk3y.nadine l Diurnal, horizontal and vertical dispersal of kelp associated fauna. A member of Laminariales. Druehl, L.D. Seaweed descriptions and pictures of Seweeds of the Noth-east Atlantic Here is a selection of 250 or so of the larger seaweeds from the north-eastern Atlanic, many of which occur in Norway, Britain, Ireland, Atlantic France and Spain, and in Portugal. Though there is a fourth type of seaweed, Blue-Green seaweed, most of them are toxic to both humans and animals. Kelp are very simple organisms. Laminaria is the home for many fish and invertebrates. Both kelp types live their lives in two stages: first, as spores, which are released from its parent as male or female plants, which produce sperm or eggs, fertilize and, then, grow into the kelp's second stage — as a mature plant. They may grow up to a meter in length. They have more or less 30 different genera. Alaria itself is an excellent and good natural source of protein and iodine. Sala, E., C.F. On the other hand, Wakame has Magnesium that help you in the relaxation of your muscles, giving you a production of protein. They are sticky and thick when they contact with the water. Mostly in Hokkaido. Bourdouresque and M. Harmelin-Vivien. Because beds of kelp have such a complex structure and are able to modify their environments, Charles Darwin likened them to forests. Norderhaug, KM., Christie, H. 2009. Erlandson, J.M., M.H. All of these are necessary to bolster the human immune system, which is one of kelp’s noted benefits. This can quickly result in barren landscapes where only a small number of species can thrive. As we mentioned before this marine creature were grow and harvested using rope. Because of the temperature factor, alaria growth is decreasing. This type of kelp is widely cultivated in China, Russia, France, Korea and Japan. They are large algae seaweeds that can grow faster than a tropical bamboo. They can live about 2 m up to 30 m below the surface. Therefore, it is not usually taken into account while classifying seaweeds since it isn’t edible. As more people discover many benefits this vegetable can give, we will give you briefly several amazing benefits of kelp: Kelp is one of the most nutrient-rich foods that really beneficial for any diet. Continued Nutrition Kelp has an impressive nutritional profile. Read: Types of Algae –Conservations of Oceans. Kelp have fucoxanthin. Kelp can assist you in weight loss, improve diabetes risk factors, and prevent or treat certain blood disorders. This material mostly used in the making of detergents, cosmetics, and food products. Young kelp must compete for space to settle and grow. What is kelp? A very high quality kelp powder, like Maine Coast Sea Vegetables Kelp Blend, contains between 9000-10500 mcg (9 mg) of iodine in a 3 gram serving (1 teaspoon), which is considerable high compared to other varieties. Seaweed is the common name for marine algae. However, this kind of business were died because the cheaper sources were coming. Term of Use | Privacy Policy | Adchoices | Disclaimer | Contacts us, 10 Types of Kelp – Characteristics – Benefits, Differences Between the Ocean and the Sea. Norderhaug, K.M., Christie, H., Rinde, E., 2002. Kelp definition is - any of various large brown seaweeds (order Laminariales). Kombu is a common food in East Asia. Kelp forest can be seen in along the west coast of the North America. Thing weed typically found in the lower zone of a rocky seashore. The button can be found on all rocky seashore. Feather Boa Kelp or Egregia menziesii is one of Kelp Species. Marine Biology 141, 965-973. With this way, the winged kelp may be harvested again. About 30 types of the genus are available in these forms. Dayton, P.K. They are typically live in the sub-littoral area. applied by outsiders rather than the natives themselves, "The biogeography of kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae): a global analysis with new insights from recent advances in molecular phylogenetics", University of California Museum of Paleontology: The Miocene Epoch, Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition), "Formulation ingredients for toothpastes and mouthwashes", "Safety and efficacy of sodium and potassium alginate for pets, other non food-producing animals and fish", Iodine Helps Kelp Fight Free Radicals and May Aid Humans, Too, "Is Seaweed The Answer To A Dieter's Prayer? They can grow to a maximum length of 2 m. The whole body is brown with a distinct midrib with wavy membranous lamina more than 7 cm in both sides. Overfishing nearshore ecosystems leads to the degradation of kelp forests. There has recently been an increase in the popularity of kelp noodles 3. While Japanese called them as Ma-Konbu, and Korean called them as Dasima. Be considerate to other creatures on the planet. They have 30 mm wide and 25 mm high. Laminaria mostly used as medicine, energy, food, and etc. Marine Biology Research 5: 515-528. • Bongo, bladderwrack, rock weed and laminaria are the most common types of kelp- out of thirty other types- that are developed into supplements. Oarweed is typically found in the sites on shores in the littoral area where it may form an extensive meadows and a dominant algae species. It is strong yet flexible allowing the kelp sway in the current ocean. Thongweed is a brown algae that normally grow in a lower shore of rocky shores where there is an extreme waves. NIVA report, 32 pp. These underwater towers of kelp provided food and shelter for the creature for marine creatures. Therefore, by reducing the number of harmful drugs into one’s system can help the patients treat cancer. The most important point of the growth of Alaria is the temperature. Kelp lives in clear water conditions that have enough sunshine. 482, 185-199, John J. McKetta Jr. Taylor & Francis, Encyclopaedia of Chemical Processing and Design: Volume 27 - Hydrogen Cyanide to Ketones Dimethyl (Acetone), 1988, p. 283, Powers, John M. Powers. You may have seen this marine plant at the beach. 2005)(Figure 3). The iodine content that every kelp has offers a lot of benefits. Nowadays, Oarweed still being used as a fertilizer and also for the extraction of Alginic Acid. They might grow up to 4 meters long. Many marine creatures using this as a shelter or place to hunt or even prevent them from the storm. Wakame may help you to prevent heart diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. This kelp also contains a high level of iodine. You can find Kelp in shallow and oceanic forests. They live in western North America from Alaska to Baja California. In China they called this species as Haidai. It is the best source of bioavailable iodine. As kelp grows, a blade at the tip of each frond separates, producing a series of tiny new blades. These kelp is the most beautiful and astonishing kelp among all. Many fishes will use this area as a hidden space when they hunt for a prey. Actually, kelp is the general term that refers to 124 species of brown algae that are in the Order Laminariales.While kelp may look like a plant, it is classified in the Kingdom Chromista. © -All Right Reserved. Giant kelp is the fastest kelp to growing organisms in the world. Read: Facts of Whale Shark  – Ways to Prevent Overfishing. Kelp cannot heal you from cancer, but it may help you to slow the growth of cancer. They are the family of kelp or Laminariales. These kelp contain iodine, an element that the body needs to make thyroid hormones. They normally can be used for cooking and particular bean dishes. Kelp, any of about 30 genera of brown algae (order Laminariales) that grow as large coastal seaweeds in colder seas of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. They provide you with nutrients and health benefits.viral infections, tumors, oxidation and inflammation while promoting a good immune system. In the past, people collect this kelp off the beaches and use them as a fertilizer for their crops. The Kelp Highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas. If you are on blood thinning medications do not add kelp to your diet without speaking to your physician, as kelp contains vitamin K, the clotting vitamin, which may affect the dosage of your medication. The 5 Types of Algae in Indonesia (Important... 13 Importance of Seaweed in Marine Ecosystem, 15 Importance of Marine Grass for Environment, 13 Functions of the Phytoplankton in Ocean Ecosystem, 15 Types of Sea Sponges – Characteristics, Characteristic of Drought Season and Countries Experiencing It, 6 Factors Affecting Air Temperature and The Explanation, Causes of Typhoon Hagibis and The Impacts of Mitigation Methods, Sand Boil Phenomenon Explanation and How to Overcome, Characteristics of Freshwater Swamp Forests – Functions – Distributions. However, they have a variety color. But, having too much of it can cause an overdose. Seaweed Kelp Include many types of algae of red, brown, and green. When they were a little they will grow like a small button or a mushroom with only 2 cm across. In addition, kelp often forms dense “forests” where fish can hide from their predators. Winged Kelp normally being harvested in summer and they will be dried. It is known for its high growth rate — the genus Macrocystis and Nereocystis luetkeana grow as fast as half a … Then, in the Mediterranean Sea and off Brazil they can grow up to 120 m because they have warmer water. Do not store them while they are still wet. By the end of the year there will be a grow emerges. We can deny that kelp are rich of nutrients. ‘Unlike kelp and other seaweed, sea grasses are descended from terrestrial plants, which adapted to shallow non-rocky coastal waters.’ ‘As it swims over different areas of seabed, a cuttlefish can change colour almost instantly to match its surroundings, taking on a dark brown shade over kelp and turning almost white over sand.’ They also able to improve a good immune system. Even though they may look like underwater plants—in some cases, growing in excess of more than 150 feet in length—seaweeds are not plants at all. Winter storms and high-energy environments easily uproot the kelp and can wash entire plants ashore.The kelp forests … Meaning: Just one sheet of this seaweed can provide nearly 2,000 percent of the recommended daily intake. Read: Conservation of Tortoise –  Ways to Save The Ocean. These kelp may grow up to 45 meters (150 feet) long in average which means 60 cm per day. As the rocky bottom will be filled with the small algae and invertebrates. Kelp can grow about 3-5 inches per day and 10-20 in the bay. Kelp grows in underwater forests (kelp forests) in clear, shallow oceans, requiring nutrient-rich water below about 20 C. It offers protection to some sea creatures, or food for others. It grows in shallow, nutrient-rich saltwater, near coastal fronts around the world. [31][32] Other major factors which threaten kelp include marine pollution and the quality of water, climate changes and certain invasive species. It is normally found from north Baja California to southeast Alaska, and also found in the southern oceans near South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Cultivated edible kelp. because of its variety of nutrients, kelp has been a good companion for Asian cultures for centuries. Because certain types of kelp are more concentrated in phytonutrients, like iodine, it is good to regulate dose according to your personal constitution and health goals. Kelp may look like a long seaweed, but its actually an alga (singular of the word “algae.”) In many parts of the ocean, kelp is an important part of the food web, because many creatures eat it. The stipe length should 20 cm. In the early year, Thingweed will begin to grown on a shore. This area can remain below 21°C as this is the best habitat for them. Unlike a redwood forest, kelp is found in nutrient-rich, cold clear water usually on the western coasts of continents. Kelp is commonly used in the regulation of thyroid hormones to prevent the swelling. These kelp were commonly being eaten in the Far East (China, Japan, Korea), these places are the place that has a high consumption of seaweeds. Ecology of kelp communities. Some of them can live more than 7 years. Kelp require a nutrient-rich water which has 6-14 degrees C (43 and 57 degrees F) They are famous for its high growth rate. Kelp provides several health benefits because it is considered a superfood for it has over 70 nutrients – zinc, manganese, copper, potassium and iron. 1998. This vegetable also has specific fat-fighting materials inside them. Kelp is a type of seaweed, and seaweeds are a form of sea algae. This will make kelp not overlapping its system. It will help you to process of converting food into energy. Humans sometimes harvest this species in a limited number as direct food. They are the foods and shelter for a thousand species of marine creatures. Their color may change green in the spring and turn into yellow brown in the summer. Alaria is a genus of brown Algae. Important note to take when you want to harvest them is leaving the hold-fast intact and stipe. 2007. They were first time discovered in the Miocene, 23 to million years ago. A stipe is similar to a plant’s stem. So, although they become commercial food products, taking kelp in a large amount is really prohibited. Kelp is also rich in sodium, Vitamins A, D, E, B1, B12, B2, K and amino Then, as we mentioned before, seaweed is one of the high nutrients foods, they typically have low fat but a good vitamin and minerals contains inside them. Is it different than seaweed or algae? Kombu or Saccharia japnica is a native Japanese kelp that is included in the family of Laminariaceae. Thongweed have two stage of morphology. Abdullah, M.I., Fredriksen, S., 2004. Even it is native to Japan, they also can be found in the Atlantic Ocean and the Northern Pacific ocean. They proved shelter and food for over 1,000 species of animals and plants.